Works Cited

I. Primary Sources


Johnson, Steven. The Ghost Map : The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World. New York: Riverhead Books (Hardcover), 2006. Steven Johnson is a writer for Wired , Discover, and The New York Times Magazine. He is also a Distinguished Writer in Residence at New York's University's Department of Journalism. He wrote this book in 2006 to allow people to learn about the cholera epidemic that destroyed London, England in 1858. We were able to utilize the book to help us gain knowledge about both John Snow and Joseph Bazalgette's actions.  It also allowed us to picture the horrible effects in which cholera brought to the people of London, which extended our view of Bazalgette's legacy. Johnson's book provided  direct quotes from Bazalgette, which we used as primary sources.

Newspaper Articles/Journal/Magazine Articles

54 Citizens. Letter. Times [London] 3 July 1849. The letter, written in complaint about the filth in London, helped us to discover the anger that civilians had about the situation. This allowed us to find that Bazalgette's actions were very much needed. This also showed that his legacy was important because people would no longer complain about the filth after he had done his deed.

Farr, William. "The Water Supply Of London." Times [London] 09 Oct. 1854: 05. Once again, our group used the Times archive to look for primary articles for the benefit of learning about Joseph Bazalgette's actions and legacy. We wanted to find an article written by William Farr, an important character who lived during the Bazalgette era. Farr was an investigator who opposed John Snow's theory in which cholera was a waterborne disease. Likewise, in his letter to the editor of the Times, he expresses his view on the water supply of London. He says that there is nothing wrong with the water supply and that cholera was an airborne epidemic.

Malthus, Thomas R. An Essay on the Principle of Population. 1798. Thomas Malthus was a very famous economist. He wrote his essay on his beliefs about the human population. We used a quote from his essay to show what he believed in. We were able to show that Bazalgette's actions helped prove Malthus wrong.


Bazalgette Portrait. Docklands Past and Present. Barking Dagenham. 18 Dec. 2008 <>. When searching for information of Bazalgette's lasting legacy we found this website. It provided some information in which we could find the status of his sewer systems today. This allowed us to find information in other sources for Bazalgette's actions and legacies. Also in this site were a good amount of pictures. This was one of the pictures that we found on that site.

Docklands Past and Present. Barking Daginhem. 14 Sept. 2008 <>. In our search for information of Bazalgette's legacy we were able to discover a wealth of images that could be used from this website. We also found some information concerning the present day that told of Bazalgette's lasting legacy on the world. With this information we were able to branch off with better effort to our searching. The images were also quite useful in our project.

Edwin Chadwick. Making the Modern World. 31 Dec. 2008 <>. Edwin Chadwick was an essential part of our project. For our purposes, we needed a picture of his face. This photograph provided a good looking profile. These elements allowed us to enhance our project on Bazalgette's actions and legacies.

Japanese Sewers. Toiletology 101. 29 Jan. 2009 <>. We used this Toiletology's website to find a picture of a modern day sewer system. We wanted to compare a modern sewer system to the Victorian ones created by Bazalgette's actions. The picture demonstrated how much the sewer system had evolved since the days of Bazalgette. We also used the picture to expand upon the Legacy page of our website.

John Snow. Joyce Images. 31 Dec. 2008 <>. For our project we needed to do research on John Snow. in putting together our website we needed a picture of his face. This was to emphasis his importance to the events depicted on our site. This photograph was a good choice for picturing his face. It provided us with all the characteristics we were expecting of his look. This allowed us to complete our project on Bazalgettte's actions and legacies.

Victoria Embankment, Cleopatra's Needle, and Thames steam ferries. The Victorian Web: An Overview. Nagoya University. 24 Dec. 2008 <>. In researching for our project, we did not understand many of the vocabulary words that were shown throughout the materials we found. One of those confusing words was the subject of an embankment. To discover this we looked up the definition but were still unsure. For more clarification we found a picture of one of Bazalgette's embankments. This was one of the key legacies that resulted from Bazalgette's actions.

II. Secondary Sources


Cadbury, Deborah. Dreams of Iron and Steel : Seven Wonders of the Nineteenth Century, from the Building of the London Sewers to the Panama Canal. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. Deborah Cadbury wrote this book in 2004 to educate people on the great iron and steel wonders of the world. She includes the London Sewers as one of the wonders. This signifies the actual legacy of Bazalgette. From this book, we were able to learn about Dr. John Snow's theories on the cholera epidemic. We also used this source as a valuable history of Joseph Bazalgette's actions for it was able to open many doors for our study as it gave his past as an engineer. The book revealed some things we were surprised to hear about and gave us more topics for research.

Halliday, Stephen. The Great Stink of London : Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis. Grand Rapids: Sutton, Limited, 2001. Hailliday's book was one of our group's top priority to find. We believed that it would be extremely useful since Joseph Bazalgette's name was clearly in the title. Likewise, his book was able to give an extremely detailed account of  Bazalgette's works and the Great Stink. Haillday's analysis of the events also helped us understand the important of Bazalgette's actions. Reading Halliday's book also allowed us to image the true legacy of Bazalgette.


Bazalgette, Edward. "Bazalgette Interview." E-mail interview. 22 Dec. 2008. In the search for experts on the subject of Bazalgette we stumbled upon a movie created by a distant relative of Joseph Bazalgette: Edward Bazalgette. In the interview we were able to gain an in depth knowledge of how Bazalgette's plans were put into play. Also, it provided us a great knowledge of how his actions were affecting London at the time. With his extensive knowledge of the person we were able to learn some facts about Bazalgette that were uncommon or difficult to find. Also it was a great advantage to be able to interview a living relative of Bazalgette which helped us acquire some useful information about how his legacy still lingers on in today's society.

Schladweiler, Jon. "National History Day." E-mail interview. 1 Jan. 2009. In order to discover the true impact of Bazalgette's actions upon the world, we tried to find experts in the world of engineering. Jon Schladweiler, a PE, had a vast knowledge of the history of sewage and had a lot of information on the impact of Bazalgette on history. He informed us of how important Bazalgette was.


Seven Wonders of the Industrial World: The Sewer King. Dir. Edward Bazalgette. Perf. Robert Lindsay. DVD. 2003. We picked up this BBC's docudrama to learn more about Joseph Bazalgette's actions and legacy. The episode proved to be very useful to our group. It is part of the 2003 BBC's series "7 Wonders of the Industrial World", which talks about the great, engineered projects of the world. The video provided great details about his life and struggle during the time of the cholera outbreak. It showed what Joseph was thinking while he was designing his project. Finally, it opened paths for us to do further research.

The Day the Universe Changed: "What the Doctor Ordered." Prod. CLEARVUE & SVE Media. Perf. James Burke. DVD. 1985. The episode "What the Doctor Ordered" from James Burke's video series, The Day the Universe Changed, was the main inspiration for our group. We found it interesting learning about the London Sewers and we decided to research the actions and legacy of the man who invented the system, Joseph Bazalgette. We watched it again to gain knowledge on the matter. Burke, a respectable science historian, was able to present the information in a interesting and intuitive way. This video is about the medical breakouts in history, and it covered the London sewer system for a brief amount of time.


"Bazalgette's Intercepting Sewer Network." Map. Floating Down the River. The Harts. 18 Dec. 2008. This map was critical in the search for information of Bazalgette's actions. The map showed the wonder that he had created to defeat cholera and remove it from London. With this map we were able to connect the info we gathered on how the sewers worked with the actual mapping of where they were. The map provided actual evidence of his legacy on the world.

"London County Council Main Drainage." Map. The History of Sanitary Sewers. 21 Dec. 2008 <>. This map was the oldest map we could find of the intercepting sewer system in London. With it we discovered the result of what Bazalgette's actions had led to. The complex drawing included depictions of the main sewer system lined up with the intercepting sewer system to divert waste away from the Thames. This was a great help in finding out just how Bazalgette's marvel worked. With a knowledge of how this creation worked, we could better discover the full legacy that Bazalgette had left behind.


"A Healthy Nation | Detailed Timeline." A Healthy Nation. 15 Feb. 2009 <>. A Healthy Nation is a website filled with information on some diseases, and their history. We used this website for its history on cholera. The website had a great timeline, which we used for our own timeline page. Many of the events on the timeline were important to the development of cholera. These events helped us research Bazalgette's actions and legacy.

History of Sewer Sanitation. Ed. Jan Mcdonald. 2004. 19 Dec. 2008 <>. This website provided us with a brief explanation of certain images and maps that it had within it. These maps and images provided us with a good foundation of Bazalgette's actions. Also some of the maps showed how Bazalgette's legacy still lives on, depicted by a description of how the sewer system worked. Also, this website provided certain links that helped us further in our research.

"Floating Down the River." The River Thames. The Harts. 18 Dec. 2008. <>. The articles in this website gave a brief description of how the Thames has been cleaned over the years. This website provided very basic information of the actions that Bazalgette took to remove cholera from London. It also provided information of the legacy Bazalgette left behind by saving the river from fecal pollution. What really supported the project in this website was the inclusion of maps and images that were of great use in the design of our website.

"London's Sewer System." Thames Water Official Website. Thames Water. 23 Nov. 2008 <>. This article was on the official present-day website of the Thames Water Company in the United Kingdom. We found this article interesting because it gave effects of Joseph Bazalgette's sewer system. It was able to provide some information about the history of the sewer system. We used these effects to expand upon Bazalgette's legacy as an engineer. It shows that his sewer system was greatly designed since it is still being used today by the Thames Water Company, which is the largest water and sewerage company.

"NationMaster - Cholera (most recent) by country." NationMaster - World Statistics, Country Comparisons. 02 Jan. 2009 <>. NationMaster's website provided us detailed statistics about cholera outbreaks in the modern day. One fascinating figure we saw was a pie graph of the cholera outbreaks by country. We were able to use the graph in our project. It helped express Bazalgette's actions and legacy.

"Zimbabwe cholera deaths pass 1,500 -" International - Breaking, World, Business, Sports, Entertainment and Video News. 04 Jan. 2009 <>. CNN is a news based website. We were able to search for articles on cholera and Bazalgette. We were particularly interested in the recent Zimbabwe cholera outbreaks. We thought it could help us in our project to describe Bazalgette's actions and legacy.

Jackson, Lee. Dictionary of Victorian London. 18 Dec. 2008 <>. This website provided comprehensive data on the status of the Thames and the people's reaction to the filth that laid within it. This collection of reactions to the dirt in London showed the impact of Bazalgette's actions and also provided knowledge of anger toward the problem. This better proves the impact of the legacies that Bazalgette had left behind. This cite also used many primary sources including articles and cartoons that were useful in the creation of our project.

Frayssinet, Fabiana. "BRAZIL: Sanitation for 115 Years." IPS Inter Press Service. 28 Dec. 2008 <>.IPS is an international online newspaper. It reports the top headlines from each country. One of the headlines was about the poor sanitation department in Brazil. We used the data from the article to talk about countries that did not have an advance sewer system. The information helped us write about Bazalgette's actions and legacy.

Frerichs, Ralph R. "John Snow - A Historical Giant in Epidemiology." Http:// University of California, Los Angeles. 18 Nov. 2008 <>. We came across the website by searching for John Snow. We found Frerichs's website really helpful since it was what we needed. It gave us an easy, short read on John Snow's life. We were able to use this knowledge to tie in with Joseph Bazalgette's actions and legacy. We knew that Bazalgette had to design the sewer system because of Snow's ideas. It was Snow who was the investigator and found the source of the cholera epidemic.