Works Referenced

I. Primary Sources

Newspaper/Journal/Magazine Articles

"Celebrations in London." Times [London] 8 July 1877. This article led us to discover the world wide effect of Bazalgette's actions. It showed that his work was continued after his time as chief engineer was ended. It also showed us that Bazalgette's work, extended by followers, was seen by people as far as America. This provided an example of how the actions of Bazalgette impacted the world around and outside of London. It also showed how his legacy lived on in other parts of the world as the awe of Bazalgette's actions in London did not subside.

Bazalgette, Joseph. Letter. "The Fleet Sewer and the Metropolitan Railway." Times [London] 19 July 1862: 7. Our group used the Times archive to find primary articles that would help our group work on Joseph Bazalgette's actions. Joseph Bazalgette's letter to the editor allowed us to understand the dangers of building the sewer system. From videos, our group already knew that there were accidents that interrupted the development. Some of the accidents were disasters that resulted in fatal injuries. Bazalgette wrote this letter to reassure people that no one was heavily injured in the Fleet Sewer incident.

Campbell, James A. Letter. "The Sewage Question." Times [London] 18 Nov. 1864: 9. Campbell's letter to the editor provided us knowledge of the legacy of the sewer system. In this letter, Campbell tells the editor to read two remarks pertaining to the metropolitan sewers of the Thames River. Since this was written during the time of Bazalgette, our group was able to utilize this as a primary source for our project. This letter showed the involvement of the common people during this time. It proved that the Englishmen cared about the development of the sewers.

"London Cesspools." Times [London] 24 June 1848: 7. This article in the Times newspaper gave us information on the cesspools of London. Being written in the mid nineteenth century, we were able to use this source as a primary source. Cesspools are very important to our project since Bazalgette's first task was to remove all the cesspools in London. In the artice, it expressed how many cesspools there were in London. The huge number shows how great Bazalgette's legacy is.

"Metropolitan Commission Of Sewers." Times [London] 25 Sept. 1854: 9. This Times article on the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers helped our group discover Bazalgette's actions. The article presents a report which Bazalgette wrote himself. Since the report was from his own words, we were able to utilize it as a primary source. Reading his report, we were also able to learn about his plans as head of the Commission. We learned that Bazalgette regarded his sewers highly and that he wanted to have a great legacy.

"Obituary: Sir Joseph W. Bazalgette." New York Times 1 Mar. 1891. The New York Times' obituary for Joseph Bazalgette was written on March 1st, 1891. Being written shortly after his death, we were able to use it as a primary source. We were also able to to get a journalist's view and personal opinion on Bazalgette. Finally, the obituary provided a quick summary of his accomplishments, actions, and legacy in England.

"Second Notification." Times [London] 1 Nov. 1848: 3. The Times published this notification for the Nuisances Removal and Contagious Diseases Prevention Act. This act is very important to our project since it declared that all cesspools needed to be removed. The removing of the cesspits paved the way for Bazalgette's sewer system. We were also able to use this source as a primary source. The Gazette shows the importance of the Act for it had to publish a second notification for it.

Snow, John. Letter. "Cholera And The Water Supply." Times [London] 26 June 1856: 12. John Snow's letter to the editor of the Times newspaper provided our group an insight on the cholera epidemic. Snow wrote to the Times commenting on a previously posted article. He wanted to make a few corrections and to make them viewable to the public. John Snow's letter was another source which our group used as a primary source. His own words provided us a medical standpoint on the cholera epidemic.

II. Secondary Sources


Barnes, David S. The Great Stink of Paris and the Nineteenth-Century Struggle Against Filth and Germs. New York: Johns Hopkins UP, 2006. Barnes's book is about the "other" Great Stink. This Great Stink took place in Paris, France. Even though it is different from the cholera outbreak in London in which our project is about, we were still able to use the book. From the book, we were able to compare both events. Since France had a cholera outbreak too, it gave a greater importance to Bazalgette's actions and legacy of forming a solution. Finally, the book gave us a better understanding of Europe during the nineteenth century.

Haven, Kendall. 100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time. Danbury: Libraries Unlimited, Incorporated, 2005. Haven's book is a fun collection of the great inventions in history. Included in the list is Bazalgette's sewer system. We decided to look in this book since we too also believed that Bazalgette's actions should be considered  one of the greatest inventions of all time. The book was able to give us easy-to-understand explanations and facts about the sewer system. It also expanded Bazalgette's legacy because his sewer system is regarded very highly.

Rosenberg, Charles E. The Cholera Years : The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. New York: University of Chicago P, 1987. Rosenberg's book provided us a countless number of facts to use about cholera. Even though his book is targeted towards an audience trained in the medical field, we were still able to use his book. From the text, we learned the dangers of cholera to a society. This helped us signify the importance the legacy of Bazalgette's actions.


"Cholera." Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1974,1975,1976,1978,1979,1980,1981,1982,1983,1984,1985,1986,1987,1988. This article was helpful in helping to find out the impact of cholera on the world and the devastation that it could have on certain civilizations. This article also included information about how people have recovered and gotten rid of the disease from their cities. The information on avoiding cholera included similarities to what Bazalgette had to deal with. The result of how others got rid of cholera was a sign that Bazalgette's legacy had stayed with the world.This was very useful in trying to find what Bazalgette had to do to get rid of the disease from London. It provided a small section of the actions that Bazalgette had taken to remove cholera from his city.

Newspaper/Journal/Magazine Articles

Hamlin, Christopher. "Edwin Chadwick and the Engineers, 1842-1854: Systems and Antisystems in the Pipe-and-Brick Sewers Wa." Technology and Culture 33 (1992): 680-709. Hamlin's article on Bazalgette in the journal of Technology and Culture provided us with information about Edwin Chadwick and his decisions. This helped us on our background knowledge part of the project.

Porter, Dale H., and Gloria C. Clifton. "Patronage, Professional Values, and Victorian Public Works: Engineering and Contracting the Thames Embankment." Victorian Studies 31 (1988): 319-49. Porter's article on engineering the Thames river gave us some background information on the Thames river, which was critical to Joseph Bazalgette's actions as an engineer. Having some knowledge on the Thames river enabled us to understand how important it was in the mid 19th century. We were also able to draw some conclusions how the waste entered the river.


Dr. Ko, Ferdinand. "Medical Interview." Personal interview. 24 Dec. 2008. When starting this project, we had the knowledge that cholera had been plaguing the city of London but we did not have any substantial knowledge of the disease. This interview with Dr. Ko led to a number of facts of cholera that were unknown at the start of the project. With this knowledge of how the disease worked we then sought knowledge of how civilizations throughout history dealt with the problem. The information gathered in this interview shed some light on the significance of Bazalgette's actions. This helped us to see more in depth into some of the challenges that Bazalgette had to face. Also by learning about how cholera has been removed from several places around the world, it is evident that Bazalgette's legacy of removing cholera still live on.


Wallace, Chris. Free WordPress Theme: Rusty Grunge. Computer software. Vers. 1.1. Chris Wallace: Designer & Developer. 7 Nov. 2008. 25 Nov. 2008 <>. Chris Wallace's template was the design our website is based on. We used his template because we felt that it was able to convey the idea of Bazalgette's actions and legacy. We customized his template to follow the rules of the contest. We also added some code to embed two video clips. Wallace provided a flexible design for us to use.


"Joseph Bazalgette." The Crossness Pumping Station. National Grid for Learning. 15 Oct. 2008. This site was one we used in our early attempts to dig up information on Bazalgette. Through it we were able to find a brief description of his importance to history. His creating of the Crossness Pumping station led us to search for the institution. The Crossness pumping station was both a sign of his legacy still living on today and also a sign of his actions when he was saving London. This started our much more broadened research that would be used later on.

"Joseph Bazalgette." Historic Figures. BBC. <>. BBC's online biography was one of our first sources. Being a British news site, BBC was a top priority to search for the actions and legacy of Joseph Bazalgette, a fellow Englishman. The article was an ideal first source to use, since it gave an easy to follow summary of his life. It reported the most important events in Bazalgette's lifespan. From there, we were able to further research these important aspects.

"Joseph Bazalgette." Spiritus Temporas. 20 Oct. 2008. This site was a good source for the history about Bazalgette. It provided a brief summary of his life and specific areas of his life as well. This source didn?t help as much as appreciated because it didn?t seem as a reliable source so more research was spawned to double check the information included on the site.

"Londonist: Bazalgette Pumping Station Restoration On Track." Londonist: London News, Food, Arts & Events. 12 Nov. 2008. 28 Dec. 2008 <>. The Londondist is a news-based blog on the city of London, England. In this article, the website talks about the restoration of a Bazalgette invention. We used this source to learn about how important Bazalgette's actions are. The fact that the people of England chose to fund a restoration for the pump station shows the extent of Bazalgette's legacy. It also provided us with a current image of the Crossing Pumping Station at Abbey Wood.

"Waste Pollution Control." Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica. 5 Dec. 2008 <>. This source from the encyclopedia gave us a little background information of how sewers worked. This gave us a little incentive to dig into the differences in this engineering and that of Bazalgette. It also provided some information on where else we could search for our information. We were able to build upon Bazalgette's legacy and actions.

Gaymen, Mary. "A Glimpse Into London's Early Sewers." Swoopnet. 21 Oct. 2008 <>. This site gave us a small introduction of what the sewers were made to do and how they did it. It also provided a brief history of them. It lead us to delve deeper in the construction and history of the sewer system to connect to Bazalgette. From this site, we were able to find more sources on Bazalgette's legacy and actions.

Johnson, Steven. The Ghost Map by Steven Johnson | Online Resources. 30 Dec. 2008 <>. Steven Johnson's website was able to help us greatly. This website is the official website of his book, which we also used as one of our sources. The website provided us with a easy to understand and digital form of his book. We were able to use the information for our own project on Bazalgette's actions and legacy.

Medema, G. J., P. Payment, A. Dufour, W. Robertson, M. Waite, P. Hunter, R. Kirby, and Y. Andersson. "Safe Drinking: An Ongoing Challenge." World Health Organization. World Health Organization. 14 Dec. 2008 <>. When searching for information about the cholera disease, a doctor suggested searching for this source. Through articles in the website we found some information on the discovery of the cholera disease and its causes. That discovery helped us to discover the true impact of Bazalgette's actions and legacies.